The os calces of deer were also found. They are, in most cases smoothed on their lateral face or at one or both ends. (Fig. 8, P1.ⅩⅠ).
Three pieces of bone of some mammal not identified are well sharpened to a point. Besides these worked specimens, those found together with potteries are two bones of ox (one is a left-humerus, and the other the coossified radius and ulna of the same leg), os calcis of deer, bird’s bones, teeth and jaws of deer, a single human bone (left femur), cuttle-fish bones, and hundreds of pieces of the bones of various animals. The human femur is roughly broken off at either end, a comparison with the recent human femur shows no difference in proportions.
Among the deer’s antlers, only three pieces have been charred. Among the great quantity of bones found only one bone belonging to man was met with. It is interesting to observe that this bone is rudely broken at both ends, and though it would be unsafe to draw any conclusion from a single example, yet its being broken in precisely the same way as the bones of other mammals might be taken as an indication of cannibalism.
And this conclusion would be in accordance with the observations made by Prof. Wyman in the Florida and New England Shell Heaps and of those of Prof. Morse in the Omori and other deposits.
The presence of ox bones in the deposit, are evidently cases of intrusion unless we suppose the wild ox has existed in Japan.
ANCIENT MOLLUSCAN FAUNA OF OKADAIRA
Special efforts were made to collect sufficient material, so that a comparison might be made between the recent and ancient mollusks of this region. We failed to accomplish this object owing to the scarcity of the recent shells on the adjacent coast.
The following list enumerates the species of mollusks thus met with in the Okadaira deposit, and as special efforts were made to collect every species in the mound, the list will not probably be much increased by future additions.
The Lamellibranchiates thus far found in the deposit are: ―
Arca inflata, Reeve.
Arca subcrenata, Lischke.
Arca granosa, Linne.
Lutraria Nuttali, Conrad.
Mactra veneriformis, Deshayes.
Dosinia Troscheli, Lischke.
Cytherea meretrix, Linne.
Ostrea denslamellosa, Lischke,
The Gasteropoda thus far present in the deposit are: ―
Eburna Japonica, Lischke.
Lampania multiformis, Lischke.
Potamides fluviatilis, P. et M.
Rapana bezoar, Linne
Turbo granulatus, Gmelin.
Natica Lamarckiana, Duclos.
Cyclina chinensis, Chem.
Mya arenaria, Linne.
It is interesting to observe the great scarcity of Mya arenaria, a species extremely abundant in the Hokkaido (Yeso) deposits as well as in the shell mounds of Omori and Tokio.
Only fourteen specimens of Arca granosa were found and these were much smaller in size than those existing in the southern portions of the empire. Among the twelve perfect specimens, the largest measures 33 mm. in height, 44 mm. in length, while the smallest measures respectively 17 mm. to 23 mm. The number of ribs were nineteen which is the average of the number of ribs seen in the Omori mound specimens. It is probable that this was its northern limit at that time.
The most abundant species found in the deposits are Arca inflata, Reeve, Arca subcrenata, Lischke, Mactra veneriformis, Deshayes, and Rapana bezoar, Linne, and the remaining species were few in number of individuals, and more or less broken.
No worked shells were met with. It is worthy of notice however that the specimens of Rapana bezoar, Linne, have almost always an irregular opening in their body whorl, as if it had been made for the more convenient extraction of the animal.
(#004の続き) 0ne of the bowls has a narrow bottom，the mouth is trianguhlr in form, and three knobs marked with a circular impression stand respectively on each of its angles. The body wall is smooth, except the upper part of it where two cord marked bands run side by side.(Fig.7， 8， P1. I).
Two cup-shaped pots have thick walls, and both have smooth bases, and uneven rims. The one(Fig.5， P1. I)is ornamented with incised lines forming rude oval figures. The other(Fig. 1， P1. II)is plain, and is somewhat cylindrical in form.
Two pots which have a smooth bottom bulge at the upper part of the body wa11，and have flaring rims.(Fig.6，P1.I.，Fig.6，P1.Ⅱ).
The most curious vessel which is nearly complete， measures 300 mm. in height. The lower half of this vessel is cylindrical in form， while the upper half abruptly enlarges in size. The rim is provided with two knobs，and is marked with two grooves on the upper face. The unstable form of this pot leads us to believe that it might have been used for cooking, the narrower and lower portion being buried in the dirt or ashes， and the fire built aboult it. (Fig. 3， 4, P1.I).
Of two pots，one(Fig. 2， P1. Ⅱ)is near]y round， its bottom is ill-defied， and its body walls are evenly ornamented with cord impressions. The other (Fig. 3， P1.Ⅱ)is similar in form and size， but has， besides a mouth、 a single small hole, and that part which separetes the mouth from this hole is slightly arched so as to form a sort oF handle. lts body wall is rough and destitute of
any impression. The material of this pot is reddish clay.
The largest vessel which we have already described (Fig.9， P1. Ⅱ)has the lower half of the body wall ornamented with incised lines and its upper half entirely smooth； and on the boundary line between these two different regions, four small knobs occur leaving a similar space between them.
Bases:－Those with matting impressions are comparatively few， and their figures are more or less different in different vessels. (Fig.5，7，P1.Ⅱ). The majority of bases are smooth.
A single lump of reddish material was found associated with fragments of pots. This material which is determined as Ferric oxide(Fe2 O3)by our friend Mr. H. Yoshida，seems to have been used as a mixture with the clay of which the red colorcd pots were made.
A few pieces of pottery rectangular in shape have been rudely formed probably for the purposes of a sinker， the longer axis have each a single notch. (Fig. 3， 4， 5， P1. Ⅹ).
A single specimen of the same kind， has a roundish form and a circular hole near the centre. lt is most probable that this fragment has also been used as sinkers of fishing nets.
The chief points which may be recognized under a careful examination of thousands of pots and fragments are briefly as follows:――
1st. The potteries are generally thicker than those obtained from other destricts of Japan， and their designs are mostly very ingenious.
(#003の続き)of the largest one is 200 mm. in height.(Fig.1，PI.IV).This peculiarity in form has never been met with in other deposits, and in most cases, the knobs are large and thick， and perforated with from two to six holes which communicate internally.This remrrkable conformation has not been met with in other parts of the empire, and seems to be peculiar to this deposit.In some the knob is simply a slight projection from the rim. ln others it forms a twisted loop. ln other it either projects outward，or internally from the inner surface of the rim. Still further，some rims are conical or notched or undulating.
The designs are various， but we may be able to classify them generally as foIlows:－asProf. Morse has described in the Omori Deposit， “ The designs are indifinitely varied ； generally areas partially or wholly enclosed by curved lines， the area within or without the lines being cord marked， the other area being smooth"(Omori Mounds Memoir p.8).ln others， the entire outer surface is cord marked tbough in some an area near the margin is left which is destitute of the cord marks. 0thers have deep pits or grooves incised， and in others still the surfhce is entirely destitute of the cord impressions， and others have a little area near the margin which is separated from the cord-marked area below.The cord marks which are impressed on the entire surface of potteries extend as far
as their margin. ln some cases， potteries are entirely destitute of cord marks.
The margins of the potteries are generally smooth and even， but in some cases they are deeply incised forming a sort of knobbed or undulating appearance.
The common ornamentation is either in curved， spiral， or parallel impresions or lines. ln many cases， lines cross each other regularly giving a reticulated appearance to the surface. The parallel lines are unevenly interriupted，or a number of parallel lines are interrupted by a zigzag line， or sometimes a number of zigzag lines are arranged one after the other in regular series.
The entire absence of legs or knobs for the support of the vessel shows in this respect a resemblance to the pottery of the Omori Deposits.
The inner surface of rims is， in some cases， marked with two or more
parallel grooves.(Fig. 12， PI.IX.,Fig.3，9，PI.VIII).
0ne hundred and eighty seven bases more or less broken were collected，of which four are marked with the matting impression, and six with irregular scratched lines， and the rest are smooth. The largest bottom thus far examined is about fourteen centimetres in diameter.
ln a few vessels the base is slightly larger in diameter than the wall of the vessel arising from it.
0f thousands of specimens more or less broken, seventeen are sufficiently complete to recognize their entire shape. Some are bowl shaped, or cup-like or pot-like. Ten of the pots are bowl shaped of which one is marked with an exquisite ornamentation on the whole area of the body wall, leaving a smooth space near the bottom. The rim is provided with a single knob perforated near the centre. ln this specimen evidences of repair are seen in two small holes which have been bored on the margins of a fracture.(Fig. 1， PI. I).
Prof. Morse who is the first discoverer of a mound of this chracter in the
Empire of Japan has pointed out the following characters in regard to the Omori deposit:－“The Omori deposits are also specialized. First : by the presence of enormous quantities of pottery of many different shapes, and of an almost infinite variety of ornamentation. Second : by great scarcity of stone implements， and the absence of arrow heads，spear points and other pointed implements of stone. Not a single arrow head， flake or chip has been found by the various parties who have been there in the interests of the University ； and the combined time spent there, if represented by a single individual, would equal over eighty days work of seven hours each." These peculiarities exactly agree with the Okadaira
The objects thus far found in the Okadaira mound are enumerated as
1. Cooking vessels
2. Hand vessels.
6. Fragments of pottery possibly used for sinkers.
3. Worked pumice.
4. Stone with circular pit-like depressions
2. Prongs of deer's antlers.
1. 0s calcis of Deer，
Many earthern vessels, and fragments of potteries were collected in the
Okadaira deposit of Hitachi. The vessels are mainly composed of rongh
materials, and some of their shapes are extraordinarily curious. The pottery is generally thicker than that of the Omori deposit， and mostly ornamented with various designs, plain or unornamented pottery being comparatively rare.
Knobs are generally of large size，and of diversified form. The dimension(#004に続く)
OKADAIRA SHELL MOUND AT HITACHI.
I．IIJIMA AND Ｃ．ＳＡＳＡＫＩ．
ＧＥＮＥＲＡＬ ＣＨＡＲＡＣＴＯＲＳ ＯＦ ＴＨＥ ＯＫＡＤＡＩＲＡ ＳＨＥＬＬ ＭＯＵＮＤ．
The Okadira shell mound lies on the south western side of a hill called Okadaira，and the eastern and western sides of it are already cultivated for plantations. A white appearance due to broken shells which the ground possesses in the vicinity of this hill is due to the remains of former mounds which have been scattered and destroyed by the farmers.
The length of this mound is estimated about eighteen ken (about 33 m.)in length, and sixteen ken (about 29 m.)in width，and its surface is thickly covered with a number of huge trees. The soil covering the mound is about six inches in thickness. The height of this mound varies from a foot to seven feet. The thickness of the deposit which varies from six inches to three feet,is in its deepest parts about six feet.
The moumd itself is nearly half a ri from the lake of Kasumigaura on the
north-eastern side， and also half a ri distant from a branch of the same lake on the west. And furthermore it is distant about five ri (about 12.5 miles)from the shore of the sea of Kashima(Pacific ocean)of Hitachi.
The evidence that the lake was formerly washed by the ocean is shown by ancient historical records of Hitachi (Hitachi Fudoki)and also from the presence of fossil remains of marine shells at various exposures along the coast.
SPECIAL CHARACTERS OF THE OKADAIRA DEPOSIT.
The Okadaira Mound does not show any remarkable difference in its features from those of the Omori mounds which are described by Prof. Edw.S.Morse in the first memoir of the science department of the University of Tokio in 2539 (1879). As a general rule， objects obtained from such a deposit in both the American and European Continents agree in their general aspect， but each deposit has its special characteristics.
In the summer of 1879，I visited the province of Hitachi which is nearly 30 ri distant from Tokio,in order to collect mollusca in the lake of Kasumigaura. Along the coast, there exist numerous fossil remains of marine shells which show evidence that the lake had once been washed by the sea in past times. Bearing in mind this feature，I carefully examined the southen coast of this lake for shell heaps, and was finally rewarded by discovering three shell mounds on the top of a hill known as Okadaira ; and afterwards found still other mounds at several places not far from the one previously mentioned，viz. one at Kihara， two at Amiura，one at Shimadzu ; and on my return to Tokio， l again met with a single enormously large mound at Kitakatamura in Shimosa.
ln the winter of the same year in company with Mr.Iijima l again visited the same province in order to make still farther researches in regard to these mounds by the order of Mr.Kato President of Tokio Daigaku.
0n this occasion，we found a number of other mounds in the same province already mentioned before, but only one was completely examinede, and that was the Okadjra mound which was the largest and richest in ancient remains.
The contents of this paper are mainly confined to the contents of this mound，and one of our objects is to compare its features with those of the Omori She11 mounds，which have been well described and accurately figured by Prof. Edw.S.Morse in the first memoir of Tokio Daigaku.
0ur thanks are particularly due to the never failing advice of Prof. Edw. S.Morse.
0ur thanks are also due to Mr. M.Nishi for the determination of the nature of the stone implements and to Mr. H. Yoshida on chemical analysis, and lastly we are much indebted to our two sincere friends Mr.0.Taneda and Mr. M.Kikuchi for their kind assistance in many ways.
To the artists Mr.J.Nomura,Mr.M.lndo, and Mr.K.Watanabe, our thanks are specially due for the fidelity with which they have made the illustratious.
lst Sept. 2542(1882).