The os calces of deer were also found. They are, in most cases smoothed on their lateral face or at one or both ends. (Fig. 8, P1.ⅩⅠ).
Three pieces of bone of some mammal not identified are well sharpened to a point. Besides these worked specimens, those found together with potteries are two bones of ox (one is a left-humerus, and the other the coossified radius and ulna of the same leg), os calcis of deer, bird’s bones, teeth and jaws of deer, a single human bone (left femur), cuttle-fish bones, and hundreds of pieces of the bones of various animals. The human femur is roughly broken off at either end, a comparison with the recent human femur shows no difference in proportions.
Among the deer’s antlers, only three pieces have been charred. Among the great quantity of bones found only one bone belonging to man was met with. It is interesting to observe that this bone is rudely broken at both ends, and though it would be unsafe to draw any conclusion from a single example, yet its being broken in precisely the same way as the bones of other mammals might be taken as an indication of cannibalism.
And this conclusion would be in accordance with the observations made by Prof. Wyman in the Florida and New England Shell Heaps and of those of Prof. Morse in the Omori and other deposits.
The presence of ox bones in the deposit, are evidently cases of intrusion unless we suppose the wild ox has existed in Japan.
ANCIENT MOLLUSCAN FAUNA OF OKADAIRA
Special efforts were made to collect sufficient material, so that a comparison might be made between the recent and ancient mollusks of this region. We failed to accomplish this object owing to the scarcity of the recent shells on the adjacent coast.
The following list enumerates the species of mollusks thus met with in the Okadaira deposit, and as special efforts were made to collect every species in the mound, the list will not probably be much increased by future additions.
The Lamellibranchiates thus far found in the deposit are: ―
Arca inflata, Reeve.
Arca subcrenata, Lischke.
Arca granosa, Linne.
Lutraria Nuttali, Conrad.
Mactra veneriformis, Deshayes.
Dosinia Troscheli, Lischke.
Cytherea meretrix, Linne.
Ostrea denslamellosa, Lischke,
The Gasteropoda thus far present in the deposit are: ―
Eburna Japonica, Lischke.
Lampania multiformis, Lischke.
Potamides fluviatilis, P. et M.
Rapana bezoar, Linne
Turbo granulatus, Gmelin.
Natica Lamarckiana, Duclos.
Cyclina chinensis, Chem.
Mya arenaria, Linne.
It is interesting to observe the great scarcity of Mya arenaria, a species extremely abundant in the Hokkaido (Yeso) deposits as well as in the shell mounds of Omori and Tokio.
Only fourteen specimens of Arca granosa were found and these were much smaller in size than those existing in the southern portions of the empire. Among the twelve perfect specimens, the largest measures 33 mm. in height, 44 mm. in length, while the smallest measures respectively 17 mm. to 23 mm. The number of ribs were nineteen which is the average of the number of ribs seen in the Omori mound specimens. It is probable that this was its northern limit at that time.
The most abundant species found in the deposits are Arca inflata, Reeve, Arca subcrenata, Lischke, Mactra veneriformis, Deshayes, and Rapana bezoar, Linne, and the remaining species were few in number of individuals, and more or less broken.
No worked shells were met with. It is worthy of notice however that the specimens of Rapana bezoar, Linne, have almost always an irregular opening in their body whorl, as if it had been made for the more convenient extraction of the animal.